Alan Turing - The High Price of Intolerance: Alan Turing was one of the most brilliant minds of the 20th century. A British mathematician he cracked the German Enigma code in WWII and probably did more to win the war than any single man save maybe Eisenhower or Churchill. After the war he single handedly destroyed the Newtonian view of the “clockwork universe” by showing that complexity can arise from simple rules … the “Butterfly Effect” laying the groundwork for Chaos Theory, Fractal Geometry and modern computer modeling of complex systems. He invented the “Turing Test” for artificial intelligence. He was also gay. He was involved in a scandal when he jilted a young lover. Convicted of “Gross Indecency” the court gave him a choice prison or hormone treatments to cure his homosexuality. He committed suicide by eating a poisoned apple (forever known as Turing’s Apple) at the age of 41.